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Aquatic Risk Assessment

S.E. Belanger. Foreword, Special issue on the environmental risk assessment of alcohol ethoxylate nonionic surfactant, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64 (2006) 1-2

S.W. Morrall, J.C. Dunphy, M.L. Cano, A. Evans, D.C. McAvoy, B.P. Price, W.S. Eckhoff. Removal and environmental exposure of alcohol ethoxylates in US sewage treatment, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64 (2006) 3-13

C.V. Eadsforth, A.J. Sherren, M.A. Selby, R. Toy, W.S. Eckhoff, D.C. McAvoy, E. Matthijs. Monitoring of environmental fingerprints of alcohol ethoxylates in Europe and Canada, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64 (2006) 14-29

T.W. Federle, N.R. Itrich. Fate of free and linear alcohol-ethoxylate-derived fatty alcohols in activated sludge, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64 (2006) 30-41

T. Wind, R.J. Stephenson, C.V. Eadsforth, A. Sherren, R. Toy. Determination of the fate of alcohol ethoxylate homologues in a laboratory continuous activated-sludge unit study, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64 (2006) 42-60

R. van Compernolle, D.C. McAvoy, A. Sherren, T. Wind, M.L. Cano, S.E. Belanger, P.B. Dorn, K.M. Kerr. Predicting the sorption of fatty alcohols and alcohol ethoxylates to effluent and receiving water solids, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64 (2006) 61-74

G.M. Boeije, M.L. Cano, S.J. Marshall, S.E. Belanger, R. Van Compernolle, P.B. Dorn, H. Gümbel, R. Toy, T. Wind. Ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships for alcohol ethoxylate mixtures based on substance-specific toxicity predictions, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64 (2006) 75-84

S.E. Belanger, P.B. Dorn, R. Toy, G. Boeije, S.J. Marshall, T. Wind, R. Van Compernolle, D. Zeller. Aquatic risk assessment of alcohol ethoxylates in North America and Europe, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64 (2006) 85-99

Feijtel, T., J. Struijs and E. Matthijs (1999). Exposure modeling and prediction of 90th percentile PEC of 4 major surfactants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18, 2645-2652

Knepper, T., Barcelo, D., de Voogt, P.,(eds.)/Elsevier, Amsterdam. (2003). Analysis and Fate of Surfactants in the Aquatic Environment

van de Plassche, E.J., J. de Bruijn, R.R. Stephenson, S.J. Marshall, T.C.J. Feijtel and S.E. Belanger, 1999. Predicted no-effect concentrations and risk characterization of four surfactants: linear alkyl benzene sulfonate, alcohol ethoxylates, alcohol ethoxylated sulfates and soap. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18, 2653-2663

van de Plassche, E., De Bruijn, J., Feijtel, T.C.J. (1997). Risk Assessment of the Four major Surfactant Groups in the Netherlands. Tenside Surfactants Detergents (34), 242-248.

Anaerobic Biodegradation

Anaerobic Biodegradation of surfactants (1999).


Feijtel, T.C.J., Vits, H., Murray-Smith, R., Van Wijk, R., Koch, V., Schroder, R., Birch, R., and TenBerge, V. (1995) Fate of LAS in Activated Sludge Waste Water Treatment Plants: A model Verification Study. Submitted to Chemosphere.


M. H. I. Comber, W. de Wolf, L. Cavalli, R. van Egmond, J. Steber, L. Tattersfield and R. A. Priston (2003). Assessment of Bioconcentration and Secondary Poisoning of Surfactants. Chemoshpere (In Press).

Tolls, J., Kloepper-Sams, P.J., and Sijm, D.T.H.M. Surfactant Bioconcentration - A Critical Review. Chemosphere, 29 (1994) 693-717.

Tolls, J., and Sijm, D.T.H.M. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Relationship between Bioconcentration and Hydrophobicity for Surfactants. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 14, (1995) 1675-1685.

Tolls, J., Haller, M., de Graaf, I., Thijssen, M.A.T.C., and Sijm, D.T.H.M. Bioconcentration of LAS: Experimental Determination and Extrapolation to Environmental Mixtures. Environ. Sci. and Technol. 31, (1997) 3426-3431.

Fatty Alcohols

†Stephen M. Mudge,‡*a Wolfram Meier-Augenstein, b Charles Eadsforth c and Paul DeLeo d
What contribution do detergent fatty alcohols make to sewage discharges and the marine environment?
J. Environ. Monit., 2010, 12, 1846–1856

Stephen M Mudge (Author), Scott E Belanger (Author), Allen M Nielsen (Author). (2008). Anthropogenic and Natural Occurrence in the Environment. RSC Publishing :

Sediment Risk Assessment

Steven T.J. Droge*,1, Joop L.M. Hermens
Alcohol ethoxylate mixtures in marine sediment: Competition for adsorption sites affects the sorption behaviour of individual homologues.
Environmental Pollution
Volume 158, Issue 10, October 2010, Pages 3116-3122

Droge, S.T.J., Hermens, J.L.M., 2007. Non-linear sorption of three alcohol ethoxylates to marine sediment: a combined langmuir and linear sorption process?
Environmental Science & Technology 41, 3192e3198. 

Droge, S.T.J., Postma, J.F., Hermens, J.L.M., 2007a. Sediment toxicity of a rapidly biodegrading nonionic surfactant: comparing the equilibrium partitioning approach with measurements in pore water. Environmental Science & Technology 42, 4215e4221.

Droge, S.T.J., Sinnige, T.L., Hermens, J.L.M., 2007b. Analysis of freely dissolved alcohol ethoxylate homologues in various seawater matrixes using solid-phase microextraction.
Analytical Chemistry 79, 2885e2891.

Droge, S.T.J., Yarza-Irusta, L., Hermens, J.L.M., 2009. Modeling nonlinear sorption of alcohol ethoxylates to sediment: the influence of molecular structure and sediment properties.
Environmental Science & Technology 43, 5712e5718.

Steven Droge (2008) A closer look at the sorption behavior of nonionic surfactants in marine sediment. Universiteit Utrecht-IRAS

S.D.W. Comber, A.U. Conrad, S. Höss, S. Webb, S. Marshall (in press) Chronic toxicity of sediment-associated linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) to freshwater benthic organisms. Environmental Pollution 144, Issue 2 (2006) 661-668

Terrestrial Risk Assessment

de Wolf, W., Feijtel, T.C.J. (1998) Terrestrial Risk Assessment for Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate (LAS) in Sludge Amended Soils, Chemosphere (36), 1319-1343.

Terrestrial Risk Assessment - Related Publications

Elsgaard L, Petersen SO, Debosz K (2001). Effects and Risk Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene sulfonates in Agricultural Soil. 1. Short-term Effects on Soil Microbiology. ET&C 20(8) 1656-1663

Elsgaard L, Petersen SO, Debosz K (2001). Effects and Risk Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene sulfonates in Agricultural Soil. 2. Effects on Soil Microbiology as Influenced by Sewage Sludge and Incubation Time. ET&C 20(8) 1664-1672

Holmstrup M, Krogh PH (2001). Effects and Risk Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene sulfonates in Agricultural Soil. 3. Sublethal Effects on Soil Invertebrates. ET&C 20(8) 1673-1679

Holmstrup M, Krogh PH, Lokke H, de Wolf W, Marshall S, Fox K (2001). Effects and Risk Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene sulfonates in Agricultural Soil. 4. The Influence of Salt Speciation, Soil Type and Sewage Sludge on Toxicity using the Collembolan Folsomia fimetaria and the Earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa as Test Organisms. ET&C 20(8) 1680-1689

Jensen J, Lokke H, Holmstrup M, Krogh PH, Elsgaard L (2001). Effects and Risk Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene sulfonates in Agricultural Soil. 5. Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in Sludge-amended Soils. ET&C 20(8) 1690-1697

GREAT-ER Project Publications
Geography-Referenced Regional Exposure Tool for European Rivers

Official GREAT-ER publications (last update August 2002)

Feijtel, T.C.J., Boeije, G., Matthies, M., Young, A., Morris, G., Gandolfi, C., Hansen, B., Fox, K., Holt, M., Koch, V., Schroder, R., Cassani, G. , Schowanek, D., Rosenblom, J. and Niessen, H. (1997). Development of a Geography-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers - GREAT-ER. Contribution to GREAT-ER # 1. Chemosphere 34, 2351-2373.

Holt, M.S., Fox, K.K., Burford, M., Daniel, M. and Buckland, H. (1998). UK Monitoring Study on the Removal of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate in Trickling Filter Type Sewage Treatment Plants. Contribution to GREAT-ER Project # 2. Sci. Tot. Environ. 210/211, 255269.

Boeije, G., Vanrolleghem, P. and Matthies, M. (1997). A Geo-referenced Aquatic Exposure Prediction Methodology for 'Down-The-Drain' Chemicals. Contribution to GREAT-ER # 3. Wat. Sci. Techno136, 251-258.

Round, C.E., Young, A.R. and Fox, K. (1998). A Regionally Applicable Model for Estimating Flow Velocity at Ungauged River Sites in the UK - GREAT-ER # 4. Water Environ. Management 12,402-405.

Whelan, M.J., Gandolfi, C. and Bischetti, G.B. (1999). A simple stochastic model of point source solute transport in rivers based on gauging station data with implication for sampling requirements. Contribution to GREAT-ER # 5. Wat. Res. 33,3171 -3181.

Fox, K.K., Holt, M.S., Daniel, M., Buckland, H. and Guymer, I. (2000). Removal of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate from a small Yorkshire stream. Contribution to GREAT-ER # 6. Sci. Total Environ. 251/252 65-275.

Boeije, G.M., Wagner, J-O., Koormann, F., Vanrolleghem, P.A., Schowanek, D.R. and Feijtel, T.C.J. (2000) New PEC definitions for river basins applicable to GIS-based environmental exposure assessment. Contribution to GREAT-ER # 8. Chemosphere, 40, 255-265.

Boeije, G.M., Schowanek, D.D. and Vanrolleghem, P.A. (2000). Incorporation of biofilm activity in 'in-stream' biodegradation modelling: a case study for LAS. Contribution to GREAT-ER # 9. Wat. Res. 34,1479-1486.

Schowanek, D., Fox, K., Holt, M., Schroeder, R., Koch, V., Cassani, G., Matthies, M., Boeije, G., Vanrolleghem, P., Young, A., Morris, G., Gandolfi, C. and Feijtel, T. (2001) GREAT-ER: A new tool for management and risk assessment of chemicals in river basins. Contribution to GREAT-ER #10. Wat. Sci. Technol. 43, 179-185.

Grob, M., Besancon, W. and Schroder, F.R. (.....). Chemical monitoring of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate, boron and water quality relevant parameters in the Itter. Contribution to GREAT-ER # 11. To be submitted to Chemosphere.

GREAT-ER-related publications (last update October 2002)

Matthies, M., Koormann, F., Boeije, G., Feijtel, T. (1997). The Identification of Thresholds of Acceptability and Danger: The Chemical Presence Route. Archives of Toxicology, Suppl. 19,123 - 135.

Matthies, M., Wagner, J-O., Koormann, F. (1997). Combination of Regional Exposure Models for European Rivers with GIS Information in: ECO-INFORMA 12: Information and Communication in Environmental and Health Issues, pp. 523 - 529.

Schroeder, F.R. (1997). A Geography-Referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers (GREAT-ER), Tenside Surf. Det., 34,442-445.

Koormann, F., Matthies, M., Trapp, S. (1998). Simulation and Visualisation of Spatial Exposure Patterns: Intermediates in the River Rhine System, In: Regulation for Chemical Safety in Europe: Analysis, Comment and Criticism (Eds. D.M. Pugh, J.V. Tarazona), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 65 - 96.

Feijtel T.C.J., G. Boeije, M. Matthies, A. Young, G. Morris, C. Gandolfi, B. Hansen, K. Fox, M. Holt, V. Koch, R. Schroder, G. Cassani, D. Schowanek, J. Rosenblom and M. Holt (1998). Development of a Geography-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers - GREAT-ER. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2076, 55-60.

Matthies, M.; F. Koormann; C. Schulze & J.-O. Wagner (1999): GREATER a Geographyreferenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers - Challenge to research. In: W. Geller (Ed.): UF2rBericht 31/99 Flul3einzugsgebietsmanagement - Herausforderungen an die Forschung.

Schulze, C.; M. Matthies; S. Trapp & F.R. Schroder (1999): Georeferenced fate modelling of LAS in the Itter streanv Chemosphere 39(11): 1833-1853.

Fox, K.K., Daniel, M., Morris, G. and Holt, M.S. (2000) The use of measured boron concentration data from the GREAT-ER UK validation study (1996-1998) to generate predicted regional boron concentrations. Sci. Total Environ. 251/252 305-316.

Holt, M.S. Daniel, M., Buckland, H. and Fox, K.K. (2000) Monitoring studies in the UK designed for the validation of the geo-referenced exposure assessment tool for European rivers (GREAT-ER) . Proc of 51h CESIO World Surfactant Congress Fiorenza May 29-31.

Gandolfi, C., Facchi, A., Whelan, M.J., Cassani, G., Tartari, G. and Marcomini, A. (2000) Validation of the GREAT-ER model in the River Lambro catchment. Proc of 5th CESIO World Surfactant Congress Fiorenza May 29-31.

Berlekamp, J. and Matthies, M. (2000). Georeferenzierte Simulation and Bewertung von Gewasserbelastungen. In: Statusseminar Elbe Okologie, Berlin. (Hrsg. BfG Koblenz), S. 161-164.

Schowanek, D. and Webb, S. F. (2000) Examples of exposure assessment simulation for pharmaceuticals in river basins with the GREAT-ER 1.0 system. Proceedings KVIV workshop "Pharmaceuticals in the environment', March 9, 2000, Brussels.

Verdonck, F., Boeije, G., Vanrolleghem, P.A. , Feijtel. T.C.J. and Schowanek, D. (2000). Toepassing van GREAT-ER, een blootstellingsmodel voor chemicalien, op het Rupelstroombekken. WEL 4-2.

Fox, K.K., Holt, M.S., Daniel, M., Buckland, H. and Guymer, I. (2000). Removal of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate from a small Yorkshire stream. Contribution to GREAT-ER # 6. Sci. Total Environ. 251/252 265-275.

Klassmeier, J. and Matthies, M. (2001). Application of GREAT-ER in the catchment of the river Main. Report University of Osnabrueck, USF, Osnabrueck, Germany. 18p.

Berding, V., Koorman, F., Schwartz, S. Wagner, J.O. and Matthies, M. (2001). Spatial refinement of regional exposure assessment. In: J.B.H.J. Linders (ed.) Modelling of Chemical Exposure and Risk, p. 201-222, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Gandolfi, C., Facchi, A., Whelan, M.J. (2001) On the relative role of hydrodynamic dispersion for river water quality. Water Resources Research 37 (9), 2365-2375.

Schulze, C. & Matthies, M. (2001): Georeferenced aquatic fate simulation of cleaning agent and detergent ingredients in the Rur catchment (Germany); Sci. Tot. Environ. 280, 55-77.

Matthies, M., Berlekamp, J. Koormann, F. and Wagner, J.O. (2001). Georeferenced simulation and aquatic exposure assessment. Wat. Sci. Technol. 43, 231-238.

Schulze, C. (2001): Modelling and Evaluating the Aquatic Fate of Detergents. Dissertation an der Universiti t Osnabruck. Beitrage des Institutes fur Umweltsystemforschung Nr.21. ISSN-Nr. 1433-3805. thesis pdf

Wagner (2001): Spatial Aspects of Chemical Exposure Assessment: A Tool for River Networks. Dissertation an der Universitat Osnabruck. thesis pdf

Schröder, R.; Schulze, C. & Matthies, M. (2002): Concentration of LAS and Boron in the Itter. Comparison of measured data with results obtained by simulation with the GREAT-ER software. Env. Sci. & Pol. Research (in press).

Schröder, A.; M. Matthies (2002): Ammonium in Fliel3gewassern des Saale-Einzugsgebietes - Vergleich von Messwerten and Modellrechnungen in GREAT-ER. UWSF - Z. Umweltchem. Okotoxikol. (in press)

Matthies, M.; Schroder, A. (2002): Verdunnung von kommunalen Abwassem im Einzugsgebiet der Elbe. Wasser & Boden 54(4) (in press).

Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Publications

Matthijs, E., Holt, M.S., Kiewit, A., and Rijs, G.B.J. (1997). Fate of Surfactants in Activated Sludge Waste Water Treatment Plants [in the Netherlands]. Tenside Surfactants Detergents (34), 238-241.

Waters, J. and Feijtel, T.C.J. AIS/CESIO environmental monitoring programme: Outcome of five national pilot studies on linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS). Chemosphere 30, No 10 (1995) 1939-1956.

Di Corcia, A., Samperi, R., Bellioni, A., Marcomini, A., Zanette, M.,Lemr, K., and Cavalli, L (1994). AIS/CESIO Environmental Surfactant Monitoring Programme. LAS Pilot Study at the "Roma-Nord" Sewage Treatment Plant and the Tiber River. Riv. Ital. Sost. Grasse. 71, (1994) 467-475.

Feijtel, T.C.J., Matthijs, E., de Nijs, A., Kiewit, A., and Rijs, G.B.J. (1994). LAS Monitoring Study in "de Meern" sewage treatment plant and receiving river "Leidsche Rijn". Chemosphere 30 (1995) 1053-1066.

Holt, M.S., Waters, J., Comber, M.H. I., Armitage, R., Morris, G and Newbery, C. (1994). AIS/CESIO Environmental Surfactant Monitoring Programme: SDIA Sewage Treatment Pilot Study on Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates (LAS). Wat. Res. 29, No.9, (1995) 2063-2070.

Sanchez Leal, J., Garcia, M.T., Tomas, R., Ferrer, J., and Bengoechea, C. (1994). Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate removal. AIS/CESIO Environmental Surfactant Monitoring Programme; Pilot Study of LAS Removal in Mancesca Sewage Treatment Plant and Associated Receiving Water System. Tenside Surfactants Detergents, 31 (1994), 253-256.

Schöberl, P., Klotz, H., Spilker, R., and Nitschke, L. (1994). Monitoring of Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS). Part 1: Pilot Study on the Munich II Sewage Treatment Plant and on the Isar between Dietersheim and Griineck. Tenside Surfactants Detergents 31 (1994), 243-252.

Schöberl, P. Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS) Monitoring. Part 2: Main study on the Chemniz River, Teltaw canal, ISAR River, Wupper River and Leine River. Tenside Surfactants Detergents 32 (1995),25-35.